《魔戒》笔记

(2020年4月至5月发布于微博)

(一)

一个小发现:

跃马客栈弗罗多意外隐形后,书里紧接着有这么一段:

“但有个肤色深暗的布理人站在那里,用一种心知肚明、半带嘲讽的神情看着他们,让他们感觉非常不自在。这会儿那人溜出了门,接着是那个斜眼南方人,这一晚他俩凑在一起窃窃私语了好久。”

(文景版)

“不过,在纷乱的人群中有一名黑皮肤的布理人露出早知如此的冷笑,让他们感到极为不安。不久之后他就趁乱溜出大门,身后跟着那个小眼睛的南方人。这两个家伙整晚都不停鬼鬼祟祟的交头接耳。看门人哈利也紧跟着两人跑出店外。

(朱版)

值得注意的是,“看门人哈利”这句在新版里消失了。这其实是个历史遗留问题。这句话早就该删去的,只是不幸一直拖到了2004年。Wayne G. Hammond和Christina Scull对此做出了解答:

“In editions prior to 2004 this sentence was followed by: ‘Harry the gatekeeper also went out just behind them.’ In draft Book I, Chapter 9 contained three references to Harry Goatleaf at the inn, all of which Tolkien firmly deleted. On a page of notes concerning elements in the chapter, Tolkien wrote: ‘Cut out Harry – he is unnecessary’, i.e. that the references to him at the inn were not needed. But the final reference, ‘Harry the gatekeeper also went out just behind them’, somehow entered the typescript, and so the published text.”


(二)

巫王一开始认为弗罗多是个“a very small spiritless creature with no pride or power”【山姆:你也太小看我们霍比特人了】,到后来居然又是疑惑又是害怕,甚至躲藏了一段时间。托尔金在手稿里详细地描写了巫王在风云顶刺了弗罗多一剑后的心理活动:

“[the Witch-king], the great captain, was actually dismayed. He had been shaken by the fire of Gandalf, and began to perceive that the mission on which Sauron had sent him was one of great peril to himself both by the way, 【哈哈哈你以为出来吓唬人有那么容易】and on his return to his Master (if unsuccessful); and he had been doing ill, so far achieving nothing save rousing the power of the Wise and directing them to the Ring. But above all the timid and terrified Bearer had resisted him, had dared to strike at him with an enchanted sword made by his own enemies long ago for his destruction. Narrowly it had missed him. 【要是真的刺中后来也就没梅里啥事了23333】 How he had come by it – save in the Barrows of Cardolan. Then he was in some way mightier than the B[arrow]-wight; 【山姆:我说啥来着,可不能小瞧我们霍比特人(叉腰.gif)】and he called on Elbereth, a name of terror to the Nazgul. He was then in league with the High Elves of the Havens. Escaping a wound that would have been as deadly to him as the Mordor knife to Frodo (as was proved at the end), he withdrew and hid for a while, out of doubt and fear both of Aragorn and especially of Frodo. 【堂堂巫王也有今天23333】But fear of Sauron, and the forces of Sauron’s will was the stronger.”

(摘自Marquette MSS 4/2/36 “The Hunt for the Ring”)

【附:喷泉君 @Ecthelion 的评论】

“巫王尤其怕弗罗多——这自然是弗罗多自身品质的反映,可能也包括巫王对危险的直觉,就像他面对揭露了身份的伊奥温时。话说,戒灵怕水,怕光(大白天出门容易迷路,魔多急需太阳镜),出卖灵魂的结果如同染上狂犬病,实在不怎么美妙。”🤣🤣🤣


(三)

“Pippin marvelled at his strength, seeing the passage that he had already forced with no other tool than his great limbs. Even now, burdened as he was, he was widening the track for those who followed, thrusting the snow aside as he went.”

(摘自Book II, Chapter 3: The Ring Goes South

Hammond和Scull的评论:

“This is Boromir’s finest hour without his advice about taking wood for a fire, and his strength, the Company might not have survived the night or escaped the mountain. Pippin’s admiration will grow even greater when Boromir defends him and Merry from orcs, and will influence him to offer his service to Boromir’s father, Denethor.”

(摘自The Lord of the Rings: A Reader’s Companion

之前从来没有从这个角度想过……🤔


(四)

一个小疑惑:都林之门上如图所示写着“Ennyn Durin Aran Moria”,甘道夫翻译为“The Doors of Durin, Lord of Moria”。可问题是,矮人家园Khazad-dûm是在第三纪元约2000年炎魔出现、矮人逃离后才开始被称作“Moria”的(辛达语,意为“The Black Pit”),第二纪元的矮人在制作这扇大门时会如此称呼(或允许冬青郡的精灵如此贬低)自己的家园吗?

Hammond和Scull在书里提供及引述了一些可能的解释。有一条我觉得还挺有道理:门上题写的原本是一个较为客观的名称,比如Hadhodrond。该词在宝钻里提到过,由“hadhod”(矮人语“Khazâd”的辛达语音译)和“rond”(cavern)构成。九人队伍里只有甘道夫一人认识石门上的铭文,他在为大家翻译时按照当时通行的名称直接把“Hadhodrond”念成了“Moria”。那时又没有照相机,大家只记下了甘道夫念给他们的文字。弗罗多后来正是根据回忆给自己的书绘制了这样一副插图。

(如此大费周章的原因是,托尔金是一个很有造诣的语言学家,同时还很看重自己发明的语言。要是别人的书里出现这种事情直接当作者疏忽就行了2333333)


(五)

刘易斯:😅😅😅

 ​​​​


(六)

啊这……(挠头 ​​​​

【附:这段恋情的具体经过参见HoMe笔记(二十二)


(七)

卷三第六章《金殿之王》里图一的这段文字给人的印象是甘道夫把魔戒和弗罗多的事情告诉了希奥顿,但后来的段落(图二)又显示事实并非如此。

早期手稿中保留了二人之间的交谈内容:

“[Gandalf’s] voice was low and secret, and yet to those beside him keen and clear. Of Sauron he told, and the lady Galadriel, and of Elrond in Rivendell far away, of the Council and the setting forth of the Company of Nine, and all the perils of their road. ‘Four only have come thus far,’ he said. ‘One is lost, Boromir prince of Gondor. Two were captured, but are free. And two have gone upon a dark Quest. Look eastward, Theoden! Into the heart of menace they have gone: two small folk, such as you in Rohan deem but the matter of children’s tales. Yet doom hangs upon them. Our hope is with them – hope, if we can but stand meanwhile!’”

(摘自The Lord of the Rings: A Reader’s Companion


(八)

看起来托尔金对中文也有所了解? ​​​​

【附:维基君 @魔戒中文wiki 的科普】

“中文的虚词(empty words)在语言学界似乎很有名,读19世纪洪堡特、20世纪泰尼埃尔的书都偶能遇到,托老至少对中文的这个范畴应是免不了知道一些的。”


(九)

记得第一次读到这段时还以为雷声和闪电是甘道夫“变”出来的,今天看到托尔金自己编写的time-scheme才意识到甘道夫只是很好地利用了路过的一场暴风雨……

A[ragorn] and Gandalf reach Meduseld about 8.30.
They interview King Theoden about 10.30 a.m.
(Thunder passes over from East at 11 a.m.)
King Theoden is healed by Gandalf.
Pardons Eomer.
Host of Rohan is mustered; sets out [at] 2 p.m.

(摘自The Lord of the Rings: A Reader’s Companion


(十)

第一次注意到李兰的插图“Tol Brandir”里有两个人……看起来应该是波洛米尔和弗罗多。强烈建议HC出个大开本插画集,书里的小图真的看不清楚🤣


(十一)

下午在后院发现一种小花,用识花app查了一下说是毛茛。半个小时后读《双塔》时又发现一个“毛莨”,查了一下原文是celandine,也就是原po里的白屈菜。两种植物长得好像,茛和莨两个字也长得好像233333 (今日困惑 ​​​​

(五个小时后的另一条微博:)

基本搞清楚了。托尔金作品里提到的“金花”的英文名是celandine,分享这个名字的有两个物种,Lesser Celandine(又名filewort、figwort,学名Ranunculus ficaria,毛茛目-毛茛科-毛茛属-榕叶毛茛)和Greater Celandine(学名Chelidonium majus,毛茛目-罂粟科-白屈菜属-白屈菜)。Scull和Hammond认为“金花”可能指的是前者,因为后者长得太高了,能一直长到70厘米,和书里的描述不符。相较于白屈菜,我觉得“毛茛”这个译名更准确一些。

PS. 图三是我家后院开的花,疑似同属毛茛属的匍枝毛茛(英文名creeping buttercup,学名Ranunculus repens),四舍五入就是和金花同一个属的亲戚了!

PPS. “毛莨”纯属乌龙,不提了不提了


(十二)

这段就很让人叹息……

Scull和Hammond评论:

“Gollum has engaged in ‘some interior debate’, Gollum vs. Sméagol, in which Sméagol has nearly won. But Sam sees Gollum’s touch of Frodo’s knee not as ‘almost a caress’ but as ‘pawing at master’. Suddenly awakened, he speaks out roughly, and the moment is lost. Gollum withdraws, and a green light appears in his eyes, a sign that his evil side is ascendant.”

托尔金在信件中提到,这段在他看来可能是整本书里最具悲剧色彩的一刻:

“For me perhaps the most tragic moment in the Tale comes in II 323 ff. when Sam fails to note the complete change in Gollum’s tone and aspect.” Gollum’s “repentance is blighted and all Frodo’s pity [given to him to this point] is (in a sense) wasted.” But in the context of the story, “Sam could hardly have acted differently.”


(十三)

现在好多人说话不是喜欢在句子中间加一个like嘛,托尔金在《王者归来》里也写过一句类似的话,“I’ll squeeze your eyes out, like I did to Radbug just now”(卷六第一章)。有个读者给出版社写信抱怨这句话的语法有问题,出版社反馈给托尔金后,托尔金给编辑回信:

“As for [the reader’s] pedantry about like I as [as in ‘like I did to Radbug’], you may inform him, if you think there is any need to do so, that he is in my opinion being very silly【🤣🤣🤣】. First of all, his … examples are taken from ‘reported speech’. Since this use of like has been current in English for many centuries, especially in the freer and more conversational styles, I see no reason why dramatic propriety should be sacrificed to [the reader’s] prejudices. In any case, two of the speakers (Sam and an Orc!) are nowhere represented as using ‘correct’ English. However the notion that like is either ‘vulgar’ or incorrect as a conjunction has no foundation either in the observed usage of so-called ‘good writers’; nor in the history of English syntax. No doubt, like other pedantic ‘rules’ of correctness, it was invented by those ignorant of both.”

(摘自The Lord of the Rings: A Reader’s Companion


(十四)

Scull和Hammond指出,托尔金作品里有一个常见主题:唱歌寻人,它们都起源于下面这个故事。英国狮心王理查一世回国途中被俘,一位忠诚部下辗转多地寻找理查,每走到一座新城堡附近就开口歌唱理查最喜欢的一首歌。有一天,一座城堡里传来回应的歌声,于是他终于找到了国王。

一些例子:

山姆在奇立斯乌苟之塔中歌唱,顶层密室里传来弗罗多回应的歌声;
芬巩借着歌声寻找到了悬崖上的迈兹洛斯;
露西恩和贝伦在托尔-因-皋惑斯岛上对歌。


(十五)

冷知识:“the Fellowship of the Ring”这个称呼在正文里首次出现是在卷六第六章,“离别众人”。 ​​​​


(十六)

卷六第九章“灰港”里有一句“加拉德瑞尔骑在白马上,一身微光闪烁的洁白衣袍犹如缭绕在明月周围的白云”(“Galadriel sat upon a white palfrey and was robed all in glimmering white, like clouds about the Moon”)。初版里这句话没问题,1958年第四印里不知为何robed被印成了roped。这个错误直到二十年后才被改正。何人如此大胆???(难道印刷厂里混入了奥克😅)


(十七)

突然想到,阿拉贡建立的的“The Reunited Kingdom”有一点像英国?

  • 魔戒之战中哈尔巴拉德从北方带来三十位游民,据此推测埃利阿多境内总共可能只有几百个杜内丹人。南方刚铎人口要多得多。与之对照的是,苏格兰人口五百万,英格兰五千万。
  • 重联王国和联合王国都经历了这样一个过程:南方王国的王室绝嗣(sort of…),北方人南下继承王位,同时还在北方保留了行宫。

(暂时想到这两点)


(十八)

看年代表时发现,《霍比特人》书里的故事发生时阿拉贡只有十岁。此时他可能还秘密居住在幽谷?比尔博一行人有可能还见过他233333 ​​​​


(十九)

1954年托尔金的出版商给他寄去美国人打算印在护封上的宣传词,还有C.S.刘易斯等人撰写的书评。托尔金非常高兴,回信写道:

“I am pleased to find that the preliminary opinions are so good, though I feel that comparisons with Spenser, Malory, and Ariosto (not to mention super Science Fiction) are too much for my vanity! 【精彩之处即将到来!】I showed your draft to Geoffrey Mure (Warden), who was being tiresome this morning and threatening to eject me from my room in favour of a mere tutor. He was visibly shaken, and evidently did not know before what the college had been harbouring. He went so far as to say that Merton seemed to be doing well【哈哈哈哈堪称默顿之光23333】though he doubted if I should get quite into the Roger Bannister class. Anyway my stock went up sufficiently to obtain me an even better room, even at the cost of ejecting one so magnificent as the Steward. So if you have any more appreciations which I have not seen, please let me have a look at them. I promise not to become like Mr Toad…”

哈哈哈哈哈,书还没正式出版,一项意想不到的成果已然浮现:给自己争取到一间更好的办公室。


(二十)

托尔金试图证明自己是一个霍比特人:

“I am in fact a Hobbit (in all but size). I like gardens, trees, and unmechanized farmlands; I smoke a pipe, and like good plain food (unrefrigerated), but detest French cooking.【😁】I like, and even dare to wear in these dull days, ornamental waistcoats. I am fond of mushrooms (out of a field); have a very simple sense of humour (which even my appreciative critics find tiresome); I go to bed late and get up late (when possible).【不错不错2333】I do not travel much.”


(二十一)

比尔博和弗罗多渡海后,当地就二人的继承权产生了一些法律争议:

After the legal fiasco of 1342 (when Bilbo returned alive after being “presumed dead”) no one dared to presume his death again.

Sackville-Baggins一家三口相继去世后,When Master Samwise reported the “departure over Sea” of Bilbo (and Frodo) in 1421, it was still held impossible to presume death; and when Master Samwise became Mayor in 1427, a rule was made that: “if any inhabitant of the Shire shall pass over Sea【就夏尔居民西渡一事特地立法🤣】in the presence of a reliable witness,【严谨2333】with the expressed intention not to return, or in circumstances plainly implying such an intention, he or she shall be deemed to have relinquished all titles rights or properties previously held or occupied, and the heir or heirs thereof shall forthwith enter into possession of these titles, rights, or properties, as is directed by established custom, or by the will and disposition of the departed, as the case may require.”

(摘自《托尔金信件集》)


(二十二)

讲一个夏尔笑话:

夏尔的“长官”(Thain)由图克族长(皮皮你好!😂)担任,是夏尔议会的议长,也是夏尔民军和霍比特武装队的指挥官,但由于民军和议会都只在紧急状况下集结,而紧急状况已不再出现,长官的权力也就只剩了名义上的尊贵。

在早期手稿里夏尔的首领叫Shirking(也就是Shire-king),显然是托尔金琢磨出来的一个双关语玩笑。怕人看不明白,还补充了一句“这个称号被无穷无尽的笑话毁掉了,所以在比尔博的时代已被弃用”。不过后来他觉得king这个词不太适合霍比特人,所以放弃了这个想法。

2 thoughts on “《魔戒》笔记

  1. Findirien

    看门人哈利–这人目前只出现在卷六
    Moria—这事很正常,但主要问题是,万一同人写到这里,就必须得还原成原来的词= =
    大开本插画集—出过收录很少的poster,目前天价…
    阿拉贡只有十岁—我们脑补了霍3电影会拍这个小娃,结果….
    一间更好的办公室—哈, 37年那时还在纠结摸鱼的成果搞不好会被同事们认为是学年主要产出呢…

    Liked by 1 person

    1. 啊这……全套海报的希望越来越渺小了(。

      “He was visibly shaken, and evidently did not know before what the college had been harbouring. He went so far as to say that Merton seemed to be doing well.” 这句话能笑一年🤣 读的时候脑中瞬间想象出了托尔金本人说这句话的调调……

      Like

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